Yellow Peril The term "Yellow Peril" refers to white apprehension, peaking in the late 19th-century, that the European inhabitants of AustraliaNew ZealandSouth AfricaCanadaand the United States would be displaced by a massive influx of East Asians; who would fill the nation with a foreign culture and speech incomprehensible to those already there and steal jobs away from the European inhabitants and that they would eventually take over and destroy their civilization, ways of life, culture and values. The term has also referred to the belief and fear that East Asian societies would invade and attack Western societies, wage war with them and lead to their eventual destruction, demise and eradication. The American Immigration Act of limited the number of Asians because they were considered an "undesirable" race. On February 12,Helen Clark, then prime minister of New Zealand apologized "to those Chinese people who had paid the poll tax and suffered other discrimination, and to their descendants".
Elements Narrative basis Typically, the folk ballad tells a compact little story that begins eruptively at the moment when the narrative has turned decisively toward its catastrophe or resolution.
Focusing on a single, climactic situation, the ballad leaves the inception of the conflict and the setting to be inferred or sketches them in hurriedly. Whatever description occurs in ballads is brief and conventional; transitions between scenes are abrupt and time shifts are only vaguely indicated; crucial events and emotions are conveyed in crisp, poignant dialogue.
In short, the ballad method of narration is directed toward achieving a bold, sensational, dramatic effect with purposeful starkness and abruptness. But despite the rigid economy of ballad narratives, a repertory of rhetorical devices is employed for prolonging highly charged moments in the story and thus thickening the emotional atmosphere.
In the most famous of such devices, incremental repetitiona phrase or stanza is repeated several times with a slight but significant substitution at the same critical point.
Suspense accumulates with each substitution, until at last the final and revelatory substitution bursts the pattern, achieving a climax and with it a release of powerful tensions.
The following stanza is a typical example: Oral transmission Since ballads thrive among unlettered people and are freshly created from memory at each separate performance, they are subject to constant variation in both text and tune.
Where tradition is healthy and not highly influenced by literary or other outside cultural influences, these variations keep the ballad alive by gradually bringing it into line with the style of life, beliefs, and emotional needs of the immediate folk audience.
Ballad tradition, however, like all folk arts, is basically conservativea trait that explains the references in several ballads to obsolete implements and customs, as well as the appearance of words and phrases that are so badly garbled as to indicate that the singer does not understand their meaning though he takes pleasure in their sound and respects their traditional right to a place in his version of the song.
The new versions of ballads that arise as the result of cumulative variations are no less authentic than their antecedents. A poem is fixed in its final form when published, but the printed or taped record of a ballad is representative only of its appearance in one place, in one line of tradition, and at one moment in its protean history.
The first record of a ballad is not its original form but merely its earliest recorded form, and the recording of a ballad does not inhibit tradition from varying it subsequently into other shapes, because tradition preserves by re-creating rather than by exact reproduction.
Composition Theories How ballads are composed and set afloat in tradition has been the subject of bitter quarrels among scholars. The so-called communal school, which was led by two American scholars F.
Gummere — and G. Kittredge —argued at first that ballads were composed collectively during the excitement of dance and song festivals. Under attack the communalists retreated to the position that although none of the extant ballads had been communally composed, the prototypical ballads that determined the style of the ballads had originated in this communal fashion.
Their opponents were the individualists, who included the British men of letters W.
They held that each ballad was the work of an individual composer, who was not necessarily a folk singer, tradition serving simply as the vehicle for the oral perpetuation of the creation.
According to the widely accepted communal re-creation theory, put forward by the American collector Phillips Barry — and the scholar G. Gerould —the ballad is conceded to be an individual composition originally.
This fact is considered of little importance because the singer is not expressing himself individually, but serving as the deputy of the public voice, and because a ballad does not become a ballad until it has been accepted by the folk community and been remolded by the inevitable variations of tradition into a communal product.
Ballads have also been thought to derive from art songs, intended for sophisticated audiences, which happened to filter down to a folk level and become folk song.Do You Know Your Bride?: A Quiz About the Woman in Your Life [Dan Carlinsky] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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Stereotypes of East Asians are ethnic stereotypes found in American society about first-generation immigrants, and American-born citizens whose family members immigrated to the United States, from East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Stereotypes of East Asians, like other ethnic stereotypes, are often .
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