Social Comparison Social Comparison Definition Social comparison involves thinking about information about one or more other people in relation to the self. People may compare themselves with other people for a variety of reasons: Festinger argued that humans have a drive to evaluate their opinions and abilities. When objective standards for self-evaluation are unavailable, he said, they compare themselves with other people.
After all, perfection likely does not exist, and therefore cannot be reached, meaning that efforts to do so are invariably frustrating and can come full circle to create an extreme lack of motivation i.
Adler postulated that since we all have various issues and shortcomings as people, our personalities develop largely through the ways in which we do or do not compensate for or overcome these inherent challenges.
Instead, he saw this phenomenon as a result of the fact that boys are encouraged to be assertive in life, and girls are discouraged from the very same thing. Nietzsche, of course, considered the will to power the basic motive of human life.
Smuts posited that, in order to understand people, we have to take them as summations rather than as parts, as unified wholes existing within the context of their environments both physical and social.
Here again Adler differed a great deal from Freud, who felt that the things that happened in the past e. Adler was essentially forward looking, seeing motivation as a matter of moving toward the future, rather than a product of our pasts driving us with only our limited awareness as to how and why.
Both Vaihinger and Adler believed that people use these fictions actively in their daily lives, such as using the absolute belief in good and evil to guide social decisions, and believing that everything is as we see it. Inferiority Once Adler had fleshed out his theory on what motivates us as beings, there remained one question to be answered: If we are all being pulled toward perfection, fulfillment, and self-actualization, why does a sizeable portion of the population end up miserably unfulfilled and far from perfect, far from realizing their selves and ideals?
Most children manage these inferiorities by dreaming of becoming adults the earliest form of striving for perfectionand by either mastering what they are bad at or compensating by becoming especially adept at something else, but for some children, the uphill climb toward developing self-esteem proves insurmountable.
To envision how an inferiority complex can mount until it becomes overwhelming, imagine the way many children flounder when it comes to math: At first they fall slightly behind, and get discouraged.
Usually, they struggle onward, muddling through high school with barely-passing grades until they get into calculus, whereupon the appearance of integrals and differential equations overwhelms them to the point they finally give up on math altogether.
Unable to meet his or her needs through direct, empowering action not having the confidence to initiate suchthe individual often grows up to be passive-aggressive and manipulative, relying unduly on the affirmation of others to carry them along. This, of course, only gives away more of their power, makes their self-esteem easier to cripple, and so on.
Of course, not all children dealing with a strong sense of inferiority become shy and timid and self-effacing; some develop a superiority complex, in a dramatic act of overcompensation. These young people often become the classic image of the playground bully, chasing away their own sense of inferiority by making others feel smaller and weaker, but may also become greedy for attention, drawn to the thrill of criminal activity or drug use, or heavily biased in their views becoming bigoted towards others of a certain gender or race, for example.
These people are characterized early on by a tendency to be generally aggressive and dominant over others, possessing an intense energy that overwhelms anything or anybody who gets in their way.
These people are not always bullies or sadists, however; some turn the energy inward and harm themselves, such as is the case with alcoholics, drug addicts, and those who commit suicide.
They lack energy, in essence, and depend on the energy of others. They are also prone to phobias, anxieties, obsessions and compulsions, general anxiety, dissociation, etc.Social comparison theory was first proposed in by psychologist Leon Festinger and suggested that people have an innate drive to evaluate .
Social Safety Self-Actualization Alderfer’s ERG Theory • Adaptation of Maslow’s work Desi’s Cognitive Evaluation Theory inputs (efforts) one exerts in comparison to others. If “O” indicates Outcomes.
“I” indicates inputs. For individuals. The main viewpoint in the social learning theory of Rotter is that personality is a representation of the contact between the person and his environment. Therefore, his theory posits that we must consider both the individual and his environment before having a full understanding of his behavior.
Sep 16, · Evaluation of the psychoanalytic theory The psychoanalytic theory is a great contribution to the study of the theories regarding personality psychology. The idea of the unconscious was a new idea and had not previously been explored much prior to Freud’s work.
Social comparison theory is centered on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations.
Individuals evaluate their own opinions and define the self by comparing themselves to others. A Theory of Social Comparison Processes, Retrieved September 12, Such theories and hypotheses in the area of social psychology are frequently viewed in terms of In other words, there is a self-imposed restriction in the range of opinion or ability with which a person compares himself.