Sometime in the middle of the 19th century, Russia entered a phase of internal crisis that in would culminate in revolution.
Conscription swept up the unwilling across Russia. The vast demand for factory production of war supplies and workers caused many more labor riots and strikes. Conscription stripped skilled workers from the cities, who had to be replaced with unskilled peasants, and then, when famine began to hit due to the poor railway system, workers abandoned the cities in droves seeking food.
Finally, the soldiers themselves, who suffered from a lack of equipment and protection from the elements, began to turn against the Tsar.
This was mainly because, as the war progressed, many of the officers who were loyal to the Tsar were killed, and were replaced by discontented conscripts from the major cities, who had little loyalty to the Tsar.
Political issues The Petrograd Soviet Assembly meeting in Many sections of the country had reason to be dissatisfied with the existing autocracy.
Nicholas II was a deeply conservative ruler and maintained a strict authoritarian system. Individuals and society in general were expected to show self-restraint, devotion to community, deference to the social hierarchy and a sense of duty to the country.
Religious faith helped bind all of these tenets together as a source of comfort and reassurance in the face of difficult conditions and as a means of political authority exercised through the clergy.
Perhaps more than any other modern monarch, Nicholas II attached his fate and the future of his dynasty to the notion of the ruler as a saintly and infallible father to his people. With a firm belief that his power to rule was granted by Divine RightNicholas assumed that the Russian people were devoted to him with unquestioning loyalty.
This ironclad belief rendered Nicholas unwilling to allow the progressive reforms that might have alleviated the suffering of the Russian people. Even after the revolution spurred the Tsar to decree limited civil rights and democratic representation, he worked to limit even these liberties in order to preserve the ultimate authority of the crown.
Since the Age of EnlightenmentRussian intellectuals had promoted Enlightenment ideals such as the dignity of the individual and the rectitude of democratic representation. A growing opposition movement had begun to challenge the Romanov monarchy openly well before the turmoil of World War I.
Workers responded to the massacre with a crippling general strike, forcing Nicholas to put forth the October Manifestowhich established a democratically elected parliament the State Duma. The Tsar undermined this promise of reform but a year later with Article 87 of the Fundamental State Lawsand subsequently dismissed the first two Dumas when they proved uncooperative.
Unfulfilled hopes of democracy fueled revolutionary ideas and violent outbursts targeted at the monarchy. Nicholas also sought to foster a greater sense of national unity with a war against a common and ancient enemy.
The Russian Empire was an agglomeration of diverse ethnicities that had shown significant signs of disunity in the years before the First World War. Nicholas believed in part that the shared peril and tribulation of a foreign war would mitigate the social unrest over the persistent issues of poverty, inequality, and inhuman working conditions.
World War I The outbreak of war in August initially served to quiet the prevalent social and political protests, focusing hostilities against a common external enemy, but this patriotic unity did not last long.
As the war dragged on inconclusively, war-weariness gradually took its toll. More important, though, was a deeper fragility: Hostility toward the Kaiser and the desire to defend their land and their lives did not necessarily translate into enthusiasm for the Tsar or the government.
However, Austro-Hungarian forces allied to Germany were driven back deep into the Galicia region by the end of the year. Reports of corruption and incompetence in the Imperial government began to emerge, and the growing influence of Grigori Rasputin in the Imperial family was widely resented.
In the eyes of Michael Lynch, a revisionist historian member of the School of Historical Studies at the University of Leicester who focuses on the role of the people, Rasputin was a "fatal disease" to the Tsarist regime.
Inthings took a critical turn for the worse when Germany shifted its focus of attack to the Eastern front. By the end of OctoberRussia had lost between 1, and 1, soldiers, with an additional 2, prisoners of war and 1, missing, all making up a total of nearly 5, men.
These staggering losses played a definite role in the mutinies and revolts that began to occur. Inreports of fraternizing with the enemy started to circulate. Soldiers went hungry, and lacked shoes, munitions, and even weapons.The Russian Revolutions of and The Russian army joins the revolution.
The Revolutions. The revolutions of brought about . Russian Revolution of Russia industrialized much later than Western Europe and the United States.
When it finally did, around the turn of the 20th century, it brought with it immense social. In , two revolutions completely changed the fabric of Russia.
First, the February Russian Revolution toppled the Russian monarchy and established a Provisional Government. Then in October, a second Russian Revolution placed the Bolsheviks as the leaders of Russia, resulting in the creation of.
Extent of change: Before and After the revolution () - Political Change: The political system changed from a monarchy to a socialist/communist leslutinsduphoenix.com to the revolution, the ruling position was hereditary, passed down the Tsar’s families for years.
It was impossible for people to reach higher social classes or become Russia's .
The Russian Revolution of was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies.
The Russian Revolution of involved the collapse of an empire under Tsar Nicholas II and the rise of Marxian socialism under Lenin and his Bolsheviks. The events of the Russian Revolution that brought the Soviet Union about had a deep impact on the entire world.
David R. Lenin's Revolution: Russia, London: Pearson.