The diversity of liberalism can be gleaned from the numerous adjectives that liberal thinkers and movements have attached to the very term "liberalism", including classicalegalitarianeconomicsocialwelfare stateethicalhumanistdeontologicalperfectionistdemocratic and institutionalto name a few. At its very root, liberalism is a philosophy about the meaning of humanity and society. Political philosopher John Gray identified the common strands in liberal thought as being individualist, egalitarian, meliorist and universalist. The individualist element avers the ethical primacy of the human being against the pressures of social collectivismthe egalitarian element assigns the same moral worth and status to all individuals, the meliorist element asserts that successive generations can improve their sociopolitical arrangements and the universalist element affirms the moral unity of the human species and marginalises local cultural differences.
Footnotes Introduction By over 16, individual men, women and children were housed in one of the eighty workhouses in metropolitan London; between 1 per cent and 2 per cent of the population of London.
Workhouses, institutions in which the poor were housed, fed and set to work, had by this time become the most common form of relief available to Londoners.
Introductory Reading The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries At regular intervals through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and especially following the establishment of the Royal Hospitals and in particular Bridewell Hospital and Prison inLondoners attempted to create city-wide employment schemes or residential workhouses as a solution to the problem of poverty and economic dislocation.
By the time the foundation was given a firm legal footing as part of the Act of Settlement init had already collapsed, though inclusion of the provisions for the Corporation in the Act itself effectively publicised the venture.
Initially the workhouse provided raw materials for the adult poor to work up at home, and accommodation for the "reception and breeding up of poor fatherless and motherless infants".
In Thomas Firmin established a parallel scheme in Aldersgate for employing the poor in the City of Londonand through it provided training and a stock of flax for home working.
Again using the workhouse half of the house of correction at Clerkenwell, in Sir Thomas Rowe created a College of Infants, which failed after just a few years, to be replaced by the Quaker Workhouse at Clerkenwell. Introductory Reading The London Workhouse Throughout the s pressure to reform the system of poor relief and the manners morals of the poor grew.
The Societies for the Reformation of Mannersactive fromemployed the criminal justice system to discipline the poor, but in parallel a wider national movement to create workhouses in major cities also evolved with the related aim to "inure the poor to labour", and train up poor children to a religious and industrious life.
In the absence of effective national reform, and following the lead of John Cary and the City of Bristol, thirteen Corporations of the Poor were established on the basis of local Acts of Parliament in all the major cites of England in the decade and a half after These institutions were generally run under the auspices of local city government, and took on the character of a combined house of correction and industrial school for children, and in relation to children at least, were intended largely to replace parochial provision.
Two undertakers were hired, and a six week course of training in spinning wool was run for parish children. Over people, primarily children, were trained, but the scheme collapsed in the summer of ; and the City turned instead to a residential workhouse model, leasing a house in Half-Moon Alley, off Bishopsgate Street, in August For the next dozen years the London Workhouse maintained, employed and educated substantial numbers of parish children; and punished a slew of beggars and vagrants.
Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. Excerpt: If the cause of this evil be well looked into, we humbly conceive it will be found to have proceeded neither from scarcity of provisions, nor from want of employment for the poor, since the goodness of God has blessed these times with plenty, no less than the former, and a long peace during. John Cary (?) was a prominent Bristol merchant and writer on matters regarding trade during the eighteenth century. Cary has been heralded as a pioneer in establishing economics as a separate field of "scientific" inquiry, a proponent of a "favorable balance of trade," and an objector to the idea that low wages were desirable.
In the annual report claimed that children had been maintained in the preceding year, and vagrants corrected. Two beadles were directly employed by the Corporation to apprehend beggars, and a bounty of a shilling per beggar or vagrant was offered for their apprehension.
This was later restricted to beggars only, when the numbers of prostitutes and the disorderly grew too large. The Corporation, however, rapidly encountered significant opposition from the parisheswhich had traditionally cared for their own poor.
In part this was a simple reflection of the high cost of maintaining an institutional provision. In response to these demands many parishes simply refused to collect the money assessed on them in support of the Corporation, and the conflict with the parishes driven primarily by finance, but inflected with political divisions as well dragged on through the s.
By several parishes were questioning the legal basis of the Corporation, and in that year a committee of the Court of Common Council was charged with finding some way of reducing the expenditure on the house.
This committee failed to produce a clear recommendation, but inin response to a request for more funding, the Corporation was forced to change its by-laws, and drastically reduce its workhouse function. From this date the London Workhouse survived almost exclusively as a house of correction.
During the next two decades the Society actively supported the creation of a large number of charity schools and working charity schools across the country, and most especially in London. It also acted as a clearing house for correspondence tying local activists into a national movement for reforming the poor, and as a publishing house, producing both pamphlet literature on religion and social policy, and a large number of short moralistic pamphlets designed for consumption by the labouring poor.Jamaican political leader, who was a staunch proponent of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, founder the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL), founder of the Black Star Line, which promoted the .
Locke on Education of Workers 1 “On the Poor Law and Working Schools” by John Locke () “MAY IT PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENCIES, - His majesty having been.
Essay five of Social Science History for budding theorists. Roberts, A. John Locke is remembered now as the most influential philosopher of modern times.
2 He was the author of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (), regarded as the foundation of the Enlightenment in the eighteenth century, 3 and which “ushered in the modern world of ideas”.
4 This has almost completely overshadowed the fact that Locke studied medicine throughout his lifetime.
is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her. Organisation of this chapter. Introduction Political background Educational background John Locke () The schools The grammar schools Girls' schools.