Two cognitions or actions consistent with each other e. Two cognitions or actions unrelated to each other e. Two cognitions or actions inconsistent with each other e. The importance of cognitions:
Our minds are wired to select and interpret evidence sustaining the essential belief: A variety of mechanisms: Self-justification is deeply ingrained in each of us. Mental schema make it easier for us to perceive information that supports what we already know or believe.
Unfortunately we often get it wrong. Our thinking is the result of our own perception, judgment, experience, and bias. Our brain distorts reality to increase our self-esteem through self-justification.
People perceive themselves readily as the origins of good effects and reluctantly as the origins of ill effects. We present a one-sided argument to Emotional dissonance. Confirmation bias is the strong human tendency to dismiss or distort evidence contrary to our beliefs and readily seek out evidence that supports our views.
Humility reduces our need for self-justification and allows us to admit to and learn from our mistakes. It can help us overcome many of these distortions. Emotional dissonance suffering from depression often reverse this bias and interpret evidence to support their fears they are not worthy. During times of stressoverload, or threat, we often resort to a simplistic form of thinking, called primal thinking, that incorporates many of these fallacies.
For an accurate appraisal it is important to reassess the situation using effortful, valid, thoughtful, and accurate analysis that properly allows for the complexities we face.
Employ critical thinking and work to understand what is. Styles of Distorted Thinking In addition to the logical fallacies that can misrepresent or misuse evidence, here is a list and short description of several common forms of distorted thinking.
This is a failure to consider all the evidence in a balanced and objective assessment. We go where our attention is, and our attention is inherently limited. Selectivity is a failure to consider a neutral, or balanced, point of view.
It can have two basic forms. The first is considering only the negative details and magnifying them while filtering out all the positive aspects of a situation.
The second is taking the positive details and magnifying them while filtering out all the negative aspects of a situation. In any case evidence that supports your bias is selected, favored, or weighted more heavily than evidence contrary to your bias.
Find the realistic balance between the optimistic and pessimistic points of view. Seek out, carefully consider, and assimilate all the evidence.
It is incorrect to arrive at a general conclusion based on a single incident or piece of evidence. This is a common example of the more general fallacy of basing a conclusion on unrepresentative evidence.
Consider a broad range of representative evidence before drawing a conclusion.
Consider systematic evidence, and dismiss anecdotal evidence. The parable of the blind men and the elephant illustrates the dangers in generalizing from unrepresentative evidence.
What each person experienced was a true portion of the elephant, but taken individually each sample was unrepresentative of the entire elephant. Each blind man extended the evidence gathered only from his limited point of view to incorrectly conclude he understood the whole of the elephant.
Each sample can be accurately interpreted only when all the samples are integrated to create a representative whole. Polarized Thinking false choice, dichotomy, primal thinking, false dilemma, black and white thinking:Event.
Date. Global Population Statistics. The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors.
Emotional labour was first put forward by sociologist Arlie Hochschild in in her classic book, The Managed Heart. Hochschild’s () thesis mostly focuses on the job of flight attendants and bill collectors where she described the work involved in being “nasty” or “nice” and have.
Since persuasion is the inherent goal of communication, it’s easy to see why cognitive dissonance plays such a large role in the field. Communicators who want to succeed in stirring others to action could benefit from understanding how cognitive dissonance affects people.
Emotional Dissonance The conflict between required and true emotions. The larger the gap between the required and the true emotions, the more employees tend to experience stress, job burnout, and psychological separation from self.
Emotional labor is the process of managing feelings and expressions to fulfill the emotional requirements of a job.
More specifically, workers are expected to regulate their emotions during interactions with customers, co-workers and superiors. The term passive-aggressive is defined as the "unassertive" expression of negative sentiments, feelings of anger, and resentfulness. So instead of verbally or physically expressing frustration or.