Are you curious about how we take in the visuals in an environment filled with strong sensory stimuli and how we interpret what we see?
Differentiate the processes of sensation and perception. Explain the basic principles of sensation and perception.
Describe the function of each of our senses. Outline the anatomy of A study of visual sensation and perception sense organs and their projections to the nervous system. Apply knowledge of sensation and perception to real world examples. Explain the consequences of multimodal perception.
After passing through a vibrantly colored, pleasantly scented, temperate rainforest, I arrived at a cliff overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
I grabbed the cold metal railing near the edge and looked out at the sea. Below me, I could see a pod of sea lions swimming in the deep blue water. All around me I could smell the salt from the sea and the scent of wet, fallen leaves. Our senses combine to create our perceptions of the world.
It is probably best to start with one very important distinction that can often be confusing: The physical process during which our sensory organs—those involved with hearing and taste, for example—respond to external stimuli is called sensation.
Sensation happens when you eat noodles or feel the wind on your face or hear a car horn honking in the distance. During sensation, our sense organs are engaging in transductionthe conversion of one form of energy into another.
Physical energy such as light or a sound wave is converted into a form of energy the brain can understand: After our brain receives the electrical signals, we make sense of all this stimulation and begin to appreciate the complex world around us.
This psychological process—making sense of the stimuli—is called perception. It is during this process that you are able to identify a gas leak in your home or a song that reminds you of a specific afternoon spent with friends.
Regardless of whether we are talking about sight or taste or any of the individual senses, there are a number of basic principles that influence the way our sense organs work.
The first of these influences is our ability to detect an external stimulus. Each sense organ—our eyes or tongue, for instance—requires a minimal amount of stimulation in order to detect a stimulus.
The way we measure absolute thresholds is by using a method called signal detection. This process involves presenting stimuli of varying intensities to a research participant in order to determine the level at which he or she can reliably detect stimulation in a given sense.
During one type of hearing test, for example, a person listens to increasingly louder tones starting from silence in an effort to determine the threshold at which he or she begins to hear see Additional Resources for a video demonstration of a high-frequency ringtone that can only be heard by young people.
Correctly indicating that a sound was heard is called a hit; failing to do so is called a miss. Through these and other studies, we have been able to gain an understanding of just how remarkable our senses are. For example, the human eye is capable of detecting candlelight from 30 miles away in the dark.
We are also capable of hearing the ticking of a watch in a quiet environment from 20 feet away. A similar principle to the absolute threshold discussed above underlies our ability to detect the difference between two stimuli of different intensities.
The differential thresholdor just noticeable difference JNDfor each sense has been studied using similar methods to signal detection. Have your friend hold the lightest object 1 lb. Then, replace this object with the next heaviest and ask him or her to tell you which one weighs more.
Reliably, your friend will say the second object every single time. However, it is not so easy when the difference is a smaller percentage of the overall weight. It will be much harder for your friend to reliably tell the difference between 10 and 11 lbs. Crossing into the world of perception, it is clear that our experience influences how our brain processes things.
However, during the time you first eat something or hear a band, you process those stimuli using bottom-up processing. This is when we build up to perception from the individual pieces.
This is called top-down processing. The best way to illustrate these two concepts is with our ability to read. Read the following quote out loud: An example of stimuli processing. Notice anything odd while you were reading the text in the triangle? In other words, your past experience has changed the way you perceive the writing in the triangle!We study of how our sense organs and brain give rise to conscious experience of the environment.
Stuart Anstis. Emeritus Professor * Is not accepting new graduate students.. Visual, motion, auditory, and tactual perception, and cross-model integration. an optical illusion used to study human's visual perception.
It illustrates sensation and perception by being a bistable figure. What is the thalamus and what role does it play in sensation and perception?
Sensation and Perception By Adam John Privitera. Chemeketa Community College. The topics of sensation and perception are among the oldest and most important in all of psychology. Visual information processing is the visual reasoning skill that enables us to process and interpret meaning from visual information that we gain through our eyesight.
Visual perception plays a big role in our everyday life. Sensation refers to the process of sensing our environment through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell. This information is sent to our brains in raw form where perception comes into play. Perception is the way we interpret these sensations and therefore make sense of everything around us.
Sensation and Perception By Adam John Privitera. Chemeketa Community College. The topics of sensation and perception are among .